Handy Guide

Rivers of Carbon:
Threatened Plant Species

Working together with Julie and David from the Australian National Botanic Gardens we have developed a list of threatened plant species that occur within the region covered by the our Rivers of Carbon projects. These species are protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act), a national scheme of environment and heritage protection, and biodiversity conservation.

Brittle Midge Orchid, Genoplesium baueri

Prepared in collaboration with the Australian National Botanical Garden

Australia’s plant species total more than 20,000 with 92% of them being endemic – that is, they only occur naturally in Australia! More than 1,300 are listed as threatened species and these are among the most at risk of disappearing. This unique biodiversity is our natural capital, and as custodians, landowners and land managers we can make a difference. All of us have an opportunity to contribute to helping secure our environment’s future by protecting, conserving, being more aware of, and actively managing our flora and the wildlife habitat it supports.

What are some of the ways you can protect threatened species on your property? Well as the old saying goes, ‘We can’t look after what we don’t know about’.

A key early step toward plant conservation is knowing what’s there and where to get help. We have put together this guide to help you as a useful reference for the rare and unique plant species in your area:

Use the search function below by typing in a common name or species latin name. To show the full list again, please clear the search box.

SpeciesCommon nameCommonwealth listingNSW State lisingFamilyItems of interestImage More Information
Acacia bynoeanaBynoe's Wattle, Tiny WattleVulnerableEndangeredFabaceaeLow spreading shrub, grows in heath and dry sclerophyll forests on sandy soils.
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Acacia flocktoniaeFlockton WattleVulnerableVulnerableFabaceaeGrows in dry sclerophyll forest on sandstone.
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Acacia pubescensDowny Wattle, Hairy Stemmed WattleVulnerableVulnerableFabaceaeBrilliant yellow flowers August to October.
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Allocasuarina glareicolaEndangeredEndangeredCasuarinaceaeA shrubby she-oak that spreads vegetatively.
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Ammobium craspedioidesYass DaisyVulnerableVulnerableAsteraceaeTolerates light grazing.
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Amphibromus fluitansRiver Swamp Wallaby-grass, Floating Swamp Wallaby-grassVulnerableVulnerablePoaceaeGrows in swamps and swamp margins, dams and seepage drains with seasonally fluctuating water levels.
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Baloskion longipesDense Cord-rushVulnerableVulnerableRestionaceaeGrows in swamps and depressions in sandy alluvium, seasonally inundated peat and sometimes with sphagnum moss.
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Boronia deaneiDeane's BoroniaVulnerableVulnerableRutaceaeRiparian species with aromatic foliage and beautiful flowers August - November.
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Bossiaea oligospermaFew-seeded BossiaeaVulnerableVulnerableFabaceaeGrows on sandstone and loamy soils.
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Caladenia tessellataThick-lipped Spider-orchid, Daddy Long-legsVulnerableEndangeredOrchidaceaeGround orchid. Yellow-green flowers with red markings in spring.
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Callitris oblongaPygmy Cypress-pine, Pigmy Cypress-pine, Dwarf, Cypress-pineVulnerableVulnerableCupressaceaeGrows in riparian zone as well as drier sites on granite soils. Fast growing.
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Calotis glandulosaMauve Burr-daisyVulnerableVulnerableAsteraceaeSeed dispersed by sticky burrs, will not tolerate heavy grazing.
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Commersonia prostrataDwarf KerrawangEndangeredEndangeredMalvaceaeMat-forming shrub that grows in a variety of soils including ephemeral wetlands.
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Cryptostylis hunterianaLeafless Tongue-orchidVulnerableVulnerableOrchidaceaeGrows in a variety of habitats including swamp-heath and woodland.
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Cynanchum elegansWhite-flowered Wax PlantEndangeredEndangeredApocynaceaeClimber with corky stems capable of suckering in response to disturbance.
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Daphnandra johnsoniiIllawarra SocketwoodEndangeredEndangeredAtherospermataceaeAromatic rainforest tree restricted to the Illawarra region.
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Diuris aequalisButtercup DoubletailVulnerableEndangeredOrchidaceaeTerrestrial 'donkey' orchid.
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Diuris ochromaPale Golden MothsVulnerableEndangeredOrchidaceaeTerrestrial orchid found in open grassy woodland and sub-alpine grassland habitats.
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Dodonaea procumbensTrailing Hop-bushVulnerableVulnerableSapindaceaeMat forming shrub with red papery 'hop-like' fruits in late spring and summer.
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Eucalyptus aggregataBlack GumVulnerableVulnerableMyrtaceaeMedium sized woodland tree which grows on alluvial soils, on cold, and poorly drained flats adjacent to creeks and small rivers.
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Eucalyptus aquaticaMountain Swamp Gum, Broad-leaved Sallee, Broadleaved SallyVulnerableVulnerableMyrtaceaeGrows in permanently waterlogged peaty soils, swaps and poorly drained areas.
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Eucalyptus benthamiiCamden White Gum, Nepean River GumVulnerableVulnerableMyrtaceaeGrows on alluvial river flats.
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Eucalyptus kartzoffianaAraluen GumVulnerableVulnerableMyrtaceaeGrows near rivers, in woodlands or wet sclerophyll forests on soils derived from granite.
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Eucalyptus macarthuriiCamden Woollybutt, Paddys River BoxEndangeredEndangeredMyrtaceaeTall tree, grows in grassy woodlands.
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Eucalyptus recurvaMongarlowe MalleeCritically endangeredCritically endangeredMyrtaceaeThe rarest known eucalypt.
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Genoplesium baueriBrittle Midge OrchidEndangeredEndangeredOrchidaceaeTerrestrial orchid.
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Genoplesium plumosumPlumed Midge-orchid, Tallong Midge OrchidEndangeredCritically endangeredOrchidaceaeAn inconspicuous ground orchid with 'upside down' flowers.
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Genoplesium vernaleEast Lynne Midge-orchidVulnerableVulnerableOrchidaceaeFlowers resemble midge-like insects clustered on the stem.
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Gentiana wingecarribiensisWingecarribee GentianEndangeredCritically endangeredGentianaceaeAnnual herb. Grows in bogs and sedge communities.
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Grevillea molyneuxiiWingello GrevilleaEndangeredVulnerableProteaceaeLow spreading shrub with red flowers throughout the year.
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Grevillea parviflora subsp. parvifloraSmall-flower GrevilleaVulnerableVulnerableProteaceaeLow spreading suckering shrub endemic to NSW.
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Grevillea rivularisCarrington Falls GrevilleaEndangeredCritically endangeredProteaceaeRiparian species sometimes found in eucalypt woodland. Confined to Budderoo National Park.
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Hakea dohertyiKowmung HakeaEndangeredEndangeredProteaceaeGrows in dry sclerophyll forest.
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Haloragis exalata subsp. exalataWingless Raspwort, Square RaspwortVulnerableVulnerableHaloragaceaePerennial herb growing in riparian zones and disturbed sites.
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Irenepharsus trypherusDelicate Cress, Illawarra IreneEndangeredEndangeredBrassicaceaeAnnual or short-lived perennial herb.
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Kunzea cambageiCambage KunzeaVulnerableVulnerableMyrtaceaeProstrate spreading shrub. Grows on damp sandy soils.
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Lepidium hyssopifoliumBasalt Pepper-cress, Peppercress, Rubble Peppercress, PepperweedEndangeredEndangeredBrassicaceaeAromatic perennial herb.
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Leucochrysum albicans subsp. TricolorHoary Sunray, Grassland Paper-daisy Endangerednot listedAsteraceaePerennial everlasting daisy. Depends on bare ground for seed germination.
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Leucopogon exolasiusWoronora Beard-heathVulnerableVulnerableEricaceaeGrows in woodland on sandstone and along sandy creek banks.
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Melaleuca biconvexaBiconvex PaperbarkVulnerableVulnerableMyrtaceaeGrows in damp sites often along watercourses.
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Melaleuca deaneiDeane's MelaleucaVulnerableVulnerableMyrtaceaeGrows in wet heath on sandstone and in woodlands.
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Pelargonium sp. Striatellum (G.W.Carr 10345)Omeo Stork's-billEndangeredEndangeredGeraniaceaeTufted perennial herb with pink flowers from October to March. Sometimes colonises lake beds during dry periods.
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Persicaria elatiorKnotweed, Tall KnotweedVulnerableVulnerablePolygonaceaeTall herb. Grows in damp sites often along water courses.
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Persoonia acerosaNeedle GeebungVulnerableVulnerableProteaceaeAttractive small shrub with yellow flowers in summer.
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Persoonia glaucescensMittagong GeebungVulnerableEndangeredProteaceaeGrows in dry sclerophyll forest and woodland communities on sandstone.
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Persoonia hirsutaHairy Geebung, Hairy PersooniaEndangeredEndangeredProteaceaeGrows on stony sandstone soils often in disturbed areas.
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Phyllota humifusaDwarf PhyllotaVulnerableVulnerableFabaceaeProstrate pea sometimes found near swamps. Grows in deep sandy soils and gravelly loams.
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Pimelea axiflora subsp. pubescensBungonia Rice-flowerEndangeredEndangeredThymelaeceaeGrows on limestone rocky outcrops and cliff faces.
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Pimelea spicataSpiked Rice-flowerEndangeredEndangeredThymelaeceaeDelicate spreading small shrub, grows in well- structured clay soils.
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Plinthanthesis rodwayiBudawangs Wallaby-grassVulnerableCritically endangeredPoaceaePerennial tussock grass restricted to mountain tops in the Budawangs.
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Pomaderris brunneaRufous PomaderrisVulnerableEndangeredRhamnaceaeBushy shrub, sometimes suckering. Grows in floodplains and creeklines.
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Pomaderris cotoneasterCotoneaster PomaderrisEndangeredEndangeredRhamnaceaeTall bushy shrub bearing some resemblance to the exotic invasive Cotoneaster.
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Pomaderris delicataDelicate PomaderrisCritically endangeredCritically endangeredRhamnaceaeDelicate shrub with yellow flowers in spring. Grows in dry open forest on shallow soils.
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Pomaderris pallidaPale PomaderrisVulnerableVulnerableRhamnaceaeCompact rounded shrub with silvery-grey foliage.
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Pomaderris sericeaBent Pomaderris, Silky PomaderrisVulnerableEndangeredRhamnaceaeLow shrub found on sandstone soils in NSW.
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Prasophyllum affineJervis Bay Leek Orchid, Culburra Leek-orchid, Kinghorn Point Leek-orchidEndangeredEndangeredOrchidaceaeCoastal ground orchid pollinated by specialised wasp species.
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Prasophyllum fuscumTawny Leek-orchid, Slaty Leek-orchidVulnerableCritically endangeredOrchidaceaeGround orchid found in wet sites.
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Prasophyllum petilumTarengo Leek OrchidEndangeredEndangeredOrchidaceaeDistinguished from other onion orchids found in the same habitat by its pinkish-purple leaf base.
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Pterostylis gibbosaIllawarra Greenhood, Rufa Greenhood, Pouched GreenhoodEndangeredEndangeredOrchidaceaeGround orchid found in poorly drained sites.
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Pterostylis pulchellaPretty Greenhood, Waterfall GreenhoodVulnerableVulnerableOrchidaceaeFound on cliff faces close to waterfall and along creek banks.
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Pterostylis saxicolaSydney Plains GreenhoodEndangeredEndangeredOrchidaceaeGround orchid with reddish-brown and green translucent flowers.
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Pultenaea elusaElusive Bush-peaEndangeredCritically endangeredFabaceaeOnly recorded twice in 1938. Unsuccessful searches since suggest population is highly restricted or possibly already extinct.
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Rutidosis leptorhynchoidesButton WrinklewortEndangeredEndangeredAsteraceaePerennial daisy, grows in grassland and woodland communities.
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Swainsona rectaSmall Purple-pea, Mountain Swainson-peaEndangeredEndangeredFabaceaeSmall perennial forb with purple flowers in spring. Plants experience a summer dormancy and dieback, reshooting from a deep taproot the following autumn/winter.
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Syzygium paniculatumMagenta Lilly Pilly, Magenta Cherry, Daguba, Scrub Cherry, Creek Lilly Pilly, Brush CherryVulnerableEndangeredMyrtaceaeAttractive tree restricted to littoral rainforest communities on the central and south coast of NSW.
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Thelymitra kangaloonicaKangaloon Sun OrchidCritically EndangeredCritically endangeredOrchidaceaeThought to be a short-lived perennial, with deep blue flowers in spring.
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Thesium australeAustral Toadflax, ToadflaxVulnerableVulnerableSantalaceaeSmall straggling herb. Semi-parasitic, taking water and some nutrients from a range of grass species.
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Trachymene scapigeraMountain TrachymeneEndangeredEndangeredApiaceaePerennial, rhizomatous, robust herb, with white to pinkish flowers in summer. Occurs in riparian habitats.
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Triplarina nowraensisNowra Heath-myrtleEndangeredEndangeredMyrtaceaeAromatic shrub with white flowers. Occurs on poorly drained sandstone shelves and along creek lines.
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Xerochrysum palustreSwamp Everlasting, Swamp Paper DaisyVulnerableNot listedAsteraceaeGrows in and on the edges of swamps and bogs.
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Zieria granulataHill Zieria, Hilly Zieria, Illawarra ZieriaEndangeredEndangeredRutaceaeTall bushy aromatic shrub restricted to the Illawarra region.
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Zieria murphyiVelvet ZieriaVulnerableVulnerableRutaceaeSoft hairy shrub with pale pink flowers in spring. Grows in sheltered gullies on sandstone.
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Getting extra help:

There are many government and community organisations armed with information and expertise to help you.

Apart from the valuable support offered by the Rivers of Carbon team, getting in touch with Local Land Services in your area to see what assistance and information is available is a great start.

The Australian Network for Plant Conservation is a wonderful source of information and regularly run workshops and field days focusing on plant conservation. They also have a regular publication called Australasian Plant Conservation as well as publications on translocations and germplasm which features many practical articles and information, some involving land managers working with threatened species. Your local Land care group and Greening Australia will also be able to provide support.

Contacts such as these are often able to guide you to where to seek resources and / or funding, typically in the form of grants, and can cover actions including fencing, weed management, planting enhancements and so on.

There are of course many resources available through the internet, but to ensure best practice, we suggest before undertaking plant conservation actions that you get plants correctly identified by professionals. Connecting with your local conservation department and threatened species officers is the best way to get up to date and accurate information and assistance. There is also an app on the Office of Environment and Heritage website to help identify threatened species that may be of assistance.

Working with threatened species can be both a rewarding opportunity as well as a challenge. Working in collaboration and sharing experiences including successes and failures helps us all to become better custodians of our special and unique natural capital.

Thank you to Julie and David from the Australian National Botanic Gardens, as well as Water NSW and Australian River Restoration Centre for the continued support for the Rivers of Carbon projects.

Julie Percival (right) with colleagues Mya Anelzark (left) and Janine Baines (middle)
David Taylor

Collecting and caring for seed from Australian native plants

The reintroduction of species into the landscape relies on seed collection for plant propagation and direct seeding. Our partners at Greening Australia have worked with us to put together this handy guide based on their Florabank Program, covering things you need to think about when collecting, propagating and storing native seed.

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